2017

120. Multipartite viruses: adaptive trick or evolutionary treat?
Lucía-Sanz, A., Manrubia, S.
npj Systems Biology and Applications 3, 34

119. The space of genotypes is a network of networks: implications for evolutionary and extinction dynamics
Yubero, P., Manrubia, S., Aguirre, J.
Scientific Reports 7, 13813

118. Disentangling the effects of selection and loss bias on gene dynamics
Iranzo, J., Cuesta, J. A., Manrubia, S., Katsnelson, M., Koonin, E. V.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 114, E5616

117. Distribution of genotype network sizes in sequence-to-structure genotype-phenotype maps
Manrubia, S. and Cuesta, J. A.
Journal of the Royal Society Interface 14, 20160976

116. Internal disequilibria and phenotypic diversification during replication of hepatitis C virus in a non-coevolving cellular environment
Moreno, E., Gallego, I., Gregori, J., Lucía-Sanz, A., Soria, M.E., Castro, V., Beach, N. M., Manrubia, S., Quer, J., Esteban, J. I., Rice, Ch. M., Gómez, J., Gastaminza, P., Domingo, E. and Perales, C.
Journal of Virology 91, e02505

115. Enumerating secondary structures and structural moieties for circular RNAs
Cuesta, J. A. and Manrubia, S.
Journal of Theoretical Biology 419, 375-382

114. Adaptive multiscapes. An up-to-date metaphor to visualize molecular adaptation
Catalán, P., Arias, C. F., Cuesta, J. A. and Manrubia, S.
Biology Direct 12, 7


2016

113. The vast unknown microbial biosphere
Pedrós-Alió, C. and Manrubia, S.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 113, 6585

112. Getting to know viral evolutionary strategies: Towards the next generation of quasispecies models
Manrubia, S. and Lázaro, E.
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 392, 201-217


2015

111. Demography-based adaptive network model reproduces the spatial organization of human linguistic groups
Capitán, J. A. and Manrubia, S.
Physical Review E 92, 062811

110. Modelling viral evolution and adaptation
Manrubia, S.
Trends in Mathematics. Research Perspectives CRM Barcelona, vol. 4. M. Corbera, J. M. Cors, J. Llibre and A. Korobeinikov, Eds. pp. 125-129. Birkhäuser, Springer.

109. Tipping points and early warning signals in the genomic composition of populations induced by environmental changes
Aguirre, J. and Manrubia, S.
Scientific Reports 5, 9664

108. New patterns in human biogeography revealed by networks of contacts between linguistic groups
Capitán, J. A., Axelsen, J. B. and Manrubia, S.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 282, 20142947

107. Evolution on neutral networks accelerates the ticking rate of the molecular clock
Manrubia, S. and Cuesta, J. A.
Journal of the Royal Society Interface 12, 20141010

106. Dynamical community structure of populations evolving on genotype networks
Capitán, J. A., Aguirre, J. and Manrubia, S.
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 72, 99-106


2014

105. toyLIFE: a computational framework to study the multi-level organization of the genotype-phenotype map
Arias, C. F., Catalán, P., Manrubia, S. and Cuesta, J. A.
Scientific Reports 4, 7549

104. Efficient HIV-1 inhibition by a 16 nt-long RNA aptamer designed by combining in vitro selection and in silico optimisation strategies
Sánchez-Luque, F., Stich, M., Manrubia, S., Briones, C. and Berzal-Herranz, A.
Scientific Reports 4, 6242

103. Susanna Manrubia and Damián H. Zanette, Genes y genealogías. Sobre nuestra herencia cultural y genómica
(Genes and genealogies. On our cultural and genomic inheritance.)
ISBN 9788437092935, 164 pp.
Colección Sin Fronteras. Cátedra de Divulgación de la Ciencia, Publicaciones de la Universidad de Valencia.

102. Large-scale genomic analysis suggests a neutral punctuated dynamics of transposable elements in bacterial genomes
Iranzo, J., Gómez, M. López de Saro, F. J. and Manrubia, S.
PLoS Computational Biology 10, e1003680

101. The ecology of human linguistic groups
Capitán, J. A. and Manrubia, S.
In: Frontiers in Ecology, Evolution and Complexity, pp. 256-265. M. Benítez, O. Miramontes and A. Valiente-Banuet eds. CopIt arXives, Mexico.

100. River density and landscape roughness are universal determinants of linguistic diversity
Axelsen, J. B. and Manrubia, S.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 281, 20133029
This paper has been featured in Science 344, 340 (Rivers of Words, Editor’s Choice), in The Economist on April 23rd: Mountains high enough and rivers wide enough, and in the Danish newspaper Politiken on August 24th:
Floder og bjerge holder styr på sprog.


2013

99. What’s in a name? Comment on “Surname distribution in population genetics and in statistical physics”
Manrubia, S.
Physics of Life Reviews 10, 424-425

98. Susanna Manrubia and Damián H. Zanette, Gens i genealogies. Sobre la nostra herència cultural i genòmica
(Genes and genealogies. On our cultural and genomic inheritance.)
ISBN 9788490260852, 200 pp.
Col.lecció Sense Fronteres, Edicions Bromera.

97. Emergence and selection of biomodules: Steps in the assembly of a protocell
Manrubia, S. C. and Briones, C.
In: Engineering of Chemical Complexity, pp. 323-343. A. S. Mikhailov and G. Ertl, eds. World Scientific, Singapore.

96. Shape matters: Effect of point mutations on RNA secondary structure
Manrubia, S. C. and Sanjuan, R.
Advances in Complex Systems 16, 1250052


2012

95. És la vida un imperatiu còsmic? Reflexions sobre la recerca i les expectatives
Manrubia, S. C.
MÈTODE 75, 12-16

94. The impact of quasispecies dynamics on the use of therapeutics
Perales, C., Iranzo, J., Manrubia, S. C. and Domingo, E.
Trends in Microbiology 20, 595-603

93. Neutral networks and chemical function in RNA. Comment on “Evolutionary dynamics of RNA-like replicator systems: a bioinformatic approach to the origin of life”
Manrubia, S. C.
Physics of Life Reviews 9, 277-278

92. Modelling viral evolution and adaptation: challenges and rewards
Manrubia, S. C.
Current Opinion in Virology 2, 531-537

91. Role of demographic dynamics and conflict in the population-area relationship for human languages
Manrubia, S. C., Axelsen, J. B. and Zanette, D. H.
PLoS ONE 7, e40137
Read the post by Anxo Sánchez, a popular science exposition of our results (in Spanish): Lenguas, evolución, demografía y conflictos

90. Evolutionary dynamics of genome segmentation in multipartite viruses
Iranzo, J. and Manrubia, S. C.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 279, 3812-3819


2011

89. Severe hindrance of viral infection propagation in spatially extended hosts
Capitán, J. A., Cuesta, J. A., Manrubia, S. C., and Aguirre, J.
PLoS ONE 6, e23358

88. Tempo and mode of inhibitor-mutagen antiviral therapies: A multidisciplinary approach
Iranzo, J., Perales, C., Domingo, E., and Manrubia, S. C.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108, 16008-16013

87. Topological structure of the space of phenotypes: the case of RNA neutral networks
Buldú, J. M., Aguirre, J., Stich, M., and Manrubia, S. C.
PLoS ONE 6, e26324

86. Motif frequency and evolutionary search times in RNA populations
Stich, M. and Manrubia, S. C.
Journal of Theoretical Biology 280, 117-126

85. Influence of mutagenesis and viral load in sustained, low-level replication of an RNA virus
Perales, C., Agudo, R., Manrubia, S. C., and Domingo, E.
Journal of Molecular Biology 407, 60

84. The struggle for space: Viral extinction through competition for cells
Cuesta, J. A., Aguirre, J., Capitán, J.A., and Manrubia, S. C.
Physical Review Letters 106, 028104

83. Particle stability, a non-replicative trait in the transition towards viral genome segmentation
Ojosnegros, S., García-Arriaza, J., Escarmís, C., Manrubia, S. C., Perales, C., Arias, A., Mateu, M. G., and Domingo, E.
PLoS Genetics 7, e1001344


2010

82. Phenotypic effect of mutations in evolving populations of RNA molecules
Stich, M., Lázaro, E., and Manrubia, S. C.
BMC Evolutionary Biology 10, 46

81. Pathways to Extinction — Beyond the Error Threshold
Manrubia S. C., Domingo, E., and Lázaro, E.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 365, 1943-1952

80. A model for the modular evolution of RNA addressing open questions on the origin of life
Briones, C., Stich, M., and Manrubia, S. C.
Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 40, 429-432

79. Variable mutation rates as an adaptive strategy in replicator populations
Stich, M., Manrubia, S. C., and Lázaro, E.
PLoS ONE 5, e11186

78. Populations of RNA molecules as computational model for evolution
Stich, M., Briones, C., Lázaro, E., and Manrubia, S. C.
In: Evolutionary Biology — Concepts, molecular, and morphological evolution. P. Pontarotti (Ed.), pp. 67-79, Springer, Heidelberg.

77. Neutral networks of genotypes: Evolution behind the curtain
Manrubia, S. C. and Cuesta, J.
ARBOR – Ciencia, pensamiento y cultura 746, 1051-1064


2009

76. Stochastic extinction of viral infectivity through the action of defectors
Iranzo, J. and Manrubia, S. C.
Europhysics Letters 85, 18001
Highlighted in SINC (Service of Information and Scientic News) of FECYT, 22nd April 2009.

75. The dawn of the RNA world: Towards functional complexity through ligation of random RNA oligomers
Briones, C., Stich, M. and Manrubia, S. C.
RNA 15, 743-749

74. Topological properties of phylogenetic trees in evolutionary models
Stich, M. and Manrubia, S. C.
European Physical Journal B 70, 583-592

73. A trade-off between fast growth and diversity generation limits the optimization of viral quasispecies
Aguirre, J., Lázaro, E., and Manrubia, S. C.
Journal of Theoretical Biology 261, 148-155

72. Biodiversidad, asexualidad y virus: tres esbozos sobre la complejidad de la evolución
Manrubia, S. C.
Apuntes de Ciencia y Tecnología 32, 29-36

71. Potential benefits of sequential inhibitor-mutagen lethal mutagenesis treatments of RNA virus infections
Perales, C., Agudo, R., Tejero, H., Manrubia, S. C., and Domingo, E.
PLoS Pathogens 5, e1000658

70. Evolutionary dynamics on networks of selectively neutral genotypes: Effects of topology and sequence stability
Aguirre, J., Buldú, J. M., and Manrubia, S. C.
Physical Review E 80, 066112


2008

69. Fractal properties of isolines at varying altitude revealing different dominant geological processes on Earth
Baldassarri, A., Montuori, M., Prieto-Ballesteros, O., and Manrubia, S. C.
Journal of Geophysical Research – Planets 113, E09002

68. Effects of spatial competition in the diversity of a quasispecies
Aguirre, J. and Manrubia, S. C.
Physical Review Letters 100, 038106

67. On the structural repertoire of pools of short, random RNA sequences
Stich, M., Briones, C. and Manrubia, S. C.
Journal of Theoretical Biology 252, 750-763


2007

66. Modular evolution and increase of functional complexity in replicating RNA molecules
Manrubia, S. C. and Briones, C.
RNA 13, 97-107

65. Out-of-equilibrium competitive dynamics of quasispecies
Aguirre, J. and Manrubia, S. C.
Europhysics Letters 77, 38001

64. Collective properties of quasispecies in molecular evolution
Stich, M., Briones, C., and Manrubia, S. C.
BMC Evolutionary Biology 7, 110

63. Multiplicative processes in social phenomena
Zanette, D. H. and Manrubia, S. C.
In: Spatiotemporal Patterns, Networks and Synchronization in Biological, Ecological and Social systems. World Scientic Lecture Notes in Complex Systems, Vol. 7. B. Blasius, J. Kurths, and L. Stone, eds. pp. 129-158.

62. Astrobiología. En busca de los límites de la vida
Manrubia, S. C.
in Encuentros con la ciencia: del macrocosmos al microcosmos, chapter 3 (pp. 65-78). E. Viguera, A. Grande-Pérez, and José Lozano (eds.). Editorial Ogijares, 304 pp.

61. En busca de los límites de la vida. Claves desde la Tierra
Manrubia, S. C.
Monografías de la Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas, Químicas y Naturales de Zaragoza 62, 119-133


2006

60. Population bottlenecks in quasispecies dynamics
Lázaro, E., Escarmís, C., and Manrubia, S.C.
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 299, 141-170

59. Long-range transport and universality classes in in vitro viral infection spread
Manrubia, S. C., García-Arriaza, J., Domingo, E., and Escarmís, C.
Europhysics Letters 74, 547-553

58. Viral evolution
Manrubia, S. C. and Lázaro, E.
Physics of Life Reviews 3, 65-92

57. Spiders: Water driven erosive structures in the southern hemisphere of Mars
Prieto, O., Fernández-Remolar, D., Selsis, F., Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A., and Manrubia, S. C.
Astrobiology 6(4), 651-667
This contribution was featured in the cover of the corresponding Astrobiology issue.

56. Eukaryotic community distribution and its relationship to water physicochemical parameters in an extreme acidic environment, Río Tinto (Southwestern Spain))
Aguilera, A., Manrubia, S.C., Gómez, F., Rodríguez, N., and Amils, R.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72(8), 5325-5330

55. Evolution of fast mutating replicators — RNA viruses and the RNA world
Manrubia, S.C.
Physica A 371(1), 80-83


2005

54. Biodiversity in model ecosystems. II: Species assembly and ecosystem structure
Bastolla, U., Lässig, M., Manrubia, S.C., and Valleriani, A.
Journal of Theoretical Biology 235, 531-539

53. Biodiversity in model ecosystems. I: Coexistence conditions for competing species
Bastolla, U., Lässig, M., Manrubia, S.C., and Valleriani, A.
Journal of Theoretical Biology 235, 521-530

52. Foot-and-mouth disease virus evolution: exploring pathways towards virus extinction
Domingo, E., Pariente, N., Airaksinen, A., Gonzáalez, C., Sierra, S., Herrera, M., Grande, A., Lowenstein, P., Manrubia, S.C., Lázaro, E., and Escarmís, C.
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 288, 149-173

51. Phylogeny of organisms from functional data: The case of protein synthesis inhibition response
Briones, C., Manrubia, S.C., Lázaro, E., Lazcano, A., and Amils, R.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34, 371-381

50. Quasispecies dynamics and RNA virus extinction
Domingo, E., Escarmís, C., Lázaro, E., and Manrubia, S. C.
Virus research 107, 129-139

49. Suppression of viral infectivity through lethal defection
Grande-Pérez, A., Lázaro, E., Domingo, E., and Manrubia, S. C.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102, 4448-4452
The research reported was awarded a national prize (Diario Medico, Best Scientific Ideas 2005).

48. High mutation rates, bottlenecks, and robustness of RNA viral quasispecies
Manrubia, S.C., Escarmís, C., Domingo, E., and Lázaro, E.
Gene, section Evolutionary Genomics 347, 273-282


2004

47. S.C. Manrubia, A.S. Mikhailov, and D.H. Zanette, Emergence of Dynamical Order. Synchronization Phenomena in Complex Systems. Lecture Notes in Complex Systems, Vol. 2, 360 pp., ISBN 981-238-803-6. World Scientic Publishing Co., Singapore.

46. Evolutionary transition toward defective RNAs that are infectious by complementation
García-Arriaza, J., Manrubia, S.C., Toja, M., Domingo, E., and Escarmís, C.
Journal of Virology 78, 11678-11685


2003

45. Supercritical branching processes and the role of fluctuations under exponential population growth
Manrubia, S.C., Arribas, M., and Lázaro, E.
Journal of Theoretical Biology 225(4), 497-505

44. Genealogy in the era of genomics
Manrubia, S.C., Derrida, B., and Zanette, D.
American Scientist 91, 158-165, March-April 2003
Translation to French: La généalogie à l’ère de la génomique. Pour la Science 46, 98-103 (2005)
Translation to German: Im Dickicht der Stammbäume. Spektrum der Wissenschaft, September 2007

43. Fitness distribution in exponentially growing asexual populations
Manrubia, S.C., Lázaro, E., Pérez-Mercader, J., Escarmís, C., and Domingo, E.
Physical Review Letters 90, 188102

42. Resistance of virus to extinction upon bottleneck passages: study of a decaying and fluctuating pattern of fitness loss
Lázaro, E., Escarmís, C., Pérez-Mercader, J., Manrubia, S.C., and Domingo, E.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100, 10830-10835

41. Motif selection in a model of evolving replicators: The role of surfaces and limited transport in network topology
Manrubia, S.C. and Poyatos, J.
Europhysics Letters 64(4), 557-563


2002

40. At the boundary between biological and cultural evolution: The origin of surname distributions
Manrubia, S.C. and Zanette, D.H.
Journal of Theoretical Biology 216, 461-477
Featured in New Scientist, 23 March 2002.

39. Modeling viral genome fitness evolution associated with serial bottleneck events: Evidence of stationary states of fitness
Lázaro, E., Escarmís, C., Domingo, E., and Manrubia, S.C.
Journal of Virology 76, 8675-8681

38. Scaling of void sizes and fractality in the galaxy distribution
Gaite, J. and Manrubia, S.C.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 335, 977-983

37. Dynamics and topology of species networks
Valleriani, A., Lässig, M., Manrubia, S.C., and Bastolla, U.
In: Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics, M. Lässig and A. Valleriani eds. Springer-Verlag.


2001

36. On the fractal nature of ecological and macroevolutionary dynamics
Solé, R.V., Alonso, D., Bascompte, J., and Manrubia, S.C.
Fractals 9, 1-16

35. Globally coupled logistic maps as dynamical glasses
Manrubia, S.C. and Mikhailov, A.S.
Europhysics Letters 53, 451-457

34. Small-world behaviour in a system of mobile elements
Manrubia, S.C., Delgado, and J., Luque, B.
Europhysics Letters 53, 693-699

33. Shape of ecological networks
Lässig, M., Bastolla, U., Manrubia, S.C., and Valleriani, A.
Physical Review Letters 86, 4418-4421

32. Vertical transmission of culture and the distribution of family names
Zanette, D.H. and Manrubia, S.C.
Physica A 295, 1-8

31. Diversity patterns from ecological models at dynamical equilibrium
Bastolla, U., Lässig, M., Manrubia, S.C., and Valleriani, A.
Journal of Theoretical Biology 212, 11-34

30. Replica symmetry breaking in dynamical glasses
Manrubia, S.C., Bastolla, U., and Mikhailov, A.S.
European Physical Journal B 23, 497-506


XXth Century

29. Synchronization and clustering in coupled saw-tooth maps
Manrubia, S.C. and Mikhailov, A.S.
International Journal of Bifurcations and Chaos 10, 2465-2478 (2000)

28. On the genealogy of a population of biparental individuals
Derrida, B., Manrubia, S.C., Zanette, D.H.
Journal of theoretical Biology 203, 303-315 (2000)

27. Very long transients in globally coupled maps
Manrubia, S.C. and Mikhailov, A.S.
Europhysics Letters 50, 580-586 (2000)

26. Distribution of repetitions of ancestors in genealogical trees
Derrida, B., Manrubia, S.C., Zanette, D.H.
Physica A 281, 1-16 (2000)

25. Self-organized criticality in ecology and evolution (reply)
Solé, R.V., Manrubia, S.C., Benton, M.J., Kauffman, S. and Bak, P.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14, 321-322 (1999)

24. Statistical properties of genealogical trees
Derrida, B., Manrubia, S.C. and Zanette, D.H.
Physical Review Letters 82, 1987-1990 (1999)
Featured in Physics World, April 1999 (Family ties), and in the Physics Bulletin of Physics News (American Institute of Physics) 428, May 14, 1999 (King Edward III).

23. Transient dynamics and scaling phenomena in urban growth
Manrubia, S.C., Zanette, D.H. and Solé, R.V.
Fractals 7(1), 1-8 (1999)

22. Stochastic multiplicative processes with reset events
Manrubia, S.C. and Zanette, D.H.
Physical Review E 59, 4945-4948 (1999)

21. Mutual synchronization and clustering in randomly coupled chaotic dynamical networks
Manrubia, S.C. and Mikhailov, A.S.
Physical Review E 60, 1579-1589 (1999)

20. Criticality and scaling in evolutionary ecology
Solé, R.V., Manrubia, S.C., Benton, M.J., Kauffman, S. and Bak, P.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14, 156-160 (1999)

19. Intermittency model for urban development
Manrubia, S.C. and Zanette, D.H.
Physical Review E 58, 295-302 (1998)

18. Reply to: Comment on “Role of intermittency in urban development: A model of large-scale city formation”
Zanette, D.H. and Manrubia, S.C.
Physical Review Letters 80, 4831 (1998)

17. A simple model of large-scale organization in evolution
Manrubia, S.C. and Paczuski, M.
International Journal of Modern Physics C 9, 1025-1032 (1998)

16. Long-range correlations in the fossil record and the fractal nature of macroevolution
Solé, R.V., Manrubia, S.C., Pérez-Mercader, J., Benton, M.J., and Bak, P.
Advances in Complex Systems 1(2), 255-266 (1998)

15. On forest spatial dynamics with gap formation
Manrubia, S.C. and Solé, R.V.
Journal of Theoretical Biology 187, 159-164 (1997)

14. Self-similarity of extinction statistics in the fossil record
Solé, R.V., Manrubia, S.C., Benton, M.J. and Bak, P.
Nature 388, 764-767 (21 August 1997).
Featured in New Scientist, 8 November 1997 (One law to rule them all), and in The New York Times, 2 September 1997 (Many small events may add up to one mass extinction).

13. Aftershock series of event February 18, 1996: An interpretation in terms of self-organized criticality
Correig, A., Urquizu, M., Manrubia, S.C. and Vila, J.
Journal of Geophysical Research 102, 407-420 (1997)

12. Role of intermittency in urban development: A model of large-scale city formation
Zanette, D.H. and Manrubia, S.C.
Physical Review Letters 79, 523-526 (1997)
Featured in Physics World, October 1997 (Power laws for cities).

11. Criticality and Unpredictability in Macroevolution
Solé, R.V. and Manrubia, S.C.
Physical Review E 55, 4500-4507 (1997)

10. Self-organized criticality in rainforest dynamics
Manrubia, S.C. and Solé, R.V.
Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 7(4), 523-541 (1996)

9. Phase transitions and complex systems
Solé, R.V., Manrubia, S.C., Bascompte, J., Delgado, J. and Luque, B.
Complexity 1, 13-26 (1996)

8. Extinction and self-organized criticality in a model of large-scale evolution
Solé, R.V. and Manrubia, S.C.
Physical Review E 54, R42-R45 (1996)

7. Extinctions: Bad genes or weak chaos?
Solé, R.V., Bascompte, J. and Manrubia, S.C.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 263, 1407-1413 (1996)

6. Complejidad en la Frontera del Caos
Solé, R.V., Bascompte, J., Delgado, J., Luque, B. and Manrubia, S.C.
Investigacion y Ciencia, May 1996, 14-21 (Spanish issue of Scientic American).

5. Self-similarity in rainforests: Evidence for a critical state
Solé, R.V. and Manrubia, S.C.
Physical Review E 51, 6250-6253 (1995)

4. Are rainforests self-organized in a critical state?
Solé, R.V. and Manrubia, S.C.
Journal of Theoretical Biology 173, 31-40 (1995)

3. R.V. Solé and S.C. Manrubia, Orden y Caos en Sistemas Complejos (Order and Chaos in Complex Systems.) Col.leccio Politext, Edicions UPC, Barcelona, 1996 (594 p.).

2. Solé, R.V., Manrubia, S.C. and Luque, B. (1994) Multifractals in rainforest ecosystems: Modelling and simulation. In: Fractals in the Natural and Applied Sciences, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 397-407.

1. Solé, R.V., Manrubia, S.C. and Luque, B. (1993) Multifractality and complexity in rainforest dynamics. Proc. 1st Copenhagen Symposium on Computer Simulation in Biology, Ecology and Medecine, 117-121.